StarDrop Modules

P450 Metabolism

Predict metabolic routes, sites, products and lability

Please note StarDrop’s P450 module has been replaced by the Metabolism module. This new module enables you to accurately predict metabolic routes, sites, products and lability of Phase I and II metabolism of your compounds.

p450 metabolism module diagram
p450 metabolism module

Regioselectivity and WhichP450™ Models

StarDrop’s P450 metabolism models predict the regioselectivity of metabolism by seven of the major drug metabolising isoforms of Cytochrome P450 enzymes. Each model identifies the sites at which metabolism is likely to occur and the corresponding metabolites if the compound is a substrate of that isoform.

StarDrop’s P450 module enables you to predict metabolic vulnerability for the P450 isoforms:

  • CYP3A4
  • CYP2D6
  • CYP2C9
  • CYP1A2
  • CYP2C19
  • CYP2C8
  • CYP2E1


StarDrop’s WhichP450 model informs you which Cytochrome P450 isoforms are most likely to be responsible for the phase I metabolism of your compounds. Combined with the models of regioselectivities of metabolism by each isoform, this model aids in the prediction of the metabolites most likely to be formed by P450-mediated metabolism. Understanding how a compound is metabolised enables identification and analysis of its potential metabolites, and guides the design of molecules with a reduced risk of drug-drug interactions or variations in exposure across the patient population.

For further information, take a look at our J. Chem. Inf. Model, ‘Predicting Regioselectivity and Lability of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism Using Quantum Mechanical Simulations’ and our J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des paper ‘WhichP450 – A Multi-class Categorical Model to Predict the Major Metabolising CYP450 Isoform for a Compound’, where we discuss the methods underlying the regioselectivity and WhichP450 models.

Metabolic Lability

While valuable, predicting the relative proportion of metabolite formation at different sites on a molecule is only a partial solution to designing more stable molecules. Therefore, StarDrop’s quantum mechanical approach goes beyond other methods that predict only the sites of metabolism, to provide a measure of the vulnerability of each site to metabolism by CYP3A4 on an absolute scale. This ‘metabolic landscape’ provides valuable additional information that guides the redesign of compounds to improve their metabolic stability.

The P450 models are available as an optional module for StarDrop. To find out more about StarDrop and the P450 models, or to arrange an online demonstration and perhaps try StarDrop for yourself, please contact us.


Discover StarDrop™

With its comprehensive suite of integrated software, StarDrop™ delivers best-in-class in silico technologies within a highly visual and user-friendly interface. StarDrop™ enables a seamless flow from the latest data through predictive modelling to decision-making regarding the next round of synthesis and research, improving the speed, efficiency, and productivity of the discovery process.